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Monday, 8 October 2012

Chandraketugarh : May be The Ancient Port City of Bengal ?

 is an archaeological site located beside the Bidyadhari river, about 35 km north-east of Kolkata, India, in the district of North 24 parganas, near the township of Berachampa and the Haroa Road railhead.
Years of excavation have revealed relics of several historical periods, although the chronological classification of the relics remains incomplete.

Google Map Arial View of Chandraketugarh

Finds include Northern Black Polished Ware (NBPW) relics, later wares dated from about 400 BC to 100 BC and approximately contemporary with the Maurya period, as well as artifacts from the more recent Kushanas and Gupta periods.
Tourist Board of Chandraketugarh

According to some historians, the Chandraketugarh site and surrounding area could be the place known to ancient Greek and Roman writers as 'Gangaridai.

Chandraketugarh is located in the district of 24 Parganas, only 38 Km north-east of Calcutta (Kolkata) in West Bengal, India. It falls under the Police Station of Deganga and covers the localities such as Berachampa, Deulia (Debalaya), Singer Ati, Shanpukur, Hadipur, Jhikra, Ranakhola, Ghorapota, Dhanpota, Chuprijhara, Mathbari, and Ghaziatala. A seven mile long and one mile wide stretch south of Berachampa is archaeologically the most significant.
Google Map Arial View of  Road from Calcutta to Chandraketugarh 
A port-city?
Chandraketugarh is located in the dynamic alluvial delta of the mighty Ganges, where the rivers continuously change their courses. In general, due to new land formation, the well-known ancient coastal towns are now found far inside the mainland. It is therefore difficult to obtain any hard facts regarding the geography of ancient Chandraketugarh. Although not adjacent to any major navigable sea-bound water channel at present, Chandraketugarh lies only ten kilometers north of the dying stream of Vidyadhari river. Vidyadhari once used to be a strong navigable river opening up to the Adi Ganga, the ancient course of the Ganges. Through this route, the Chandraketugarh site probably had easy access to the sea.
Vidyadhari river beside Chandaketugarh
A depiction of the immediate surrounding of Chandraketugarh with the Vidyadhari river can be found in this map (in Bengali), courtesy: Dilip Maite.

The Archaeological significance of the Chandraketugarh area came to the attention in the early years of the last century when road-building activities exposed a brick structre. A. H. Longhurst first visited the site in 1907 on the urging of Tarak Nath Ghosh, a local resident. Despite the recovery of a large volume of bricks and potteries, Longhurst, unfortunatley, reported that "the ruins were of little or no interest". Rakhaldas Bandopadhyay (of Mohen-Jo-Daro fame) visited the site in 1909 and collected some artifacts. K. N. Dikshit, Superintendent of the Eastern Circle of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), first published a report on the site in 1922-23. Kalidas Dutt, a well-known author of the archaeology of the lower Bengal, inspired Deva Prasad Ghosh, Kalyan Kumar Ganguly, and Kunja Govinda Goswami to take notice of this site. It was due to their persuation that the site was excavated by the Asutosh Museum of the Indian Art of the Calcutta University through 1955 to 1967. Their reports were published in the annual ASI Reviews. Finally, in 2000, there was a minor excavation at the site by ASI under Bimal Banerjee; however this effort has come to an abrupt stop (I do not know why).

There are two formidable difficulties facing the scholars studying Chandraketugarh. First, the relatively small scale of excavation at Chandraketugarh (by Asutosh Museum) is not sufficient for a comprehensive understanding of the society and culture of such an extensive site. Except for last year's short-lived excavation, we do not know if ASI, under whose custody the site is presently preserved, ever planned or executed any excavation since Asutosh Museum suspended theirs in 1967. Second, no detailed report on Chandraketugarh has ever been published by the scholars involved in the excavation of the site. All we have are the annual articles of the ASI Review, which, though they are indeed very useful, do not have the scope to present an assimilative view of several years of exploration. We probably will never have such a report written by one of the original excavators.

The history of Chandraketugarh dates back to almost the 3rd Century B.C., during the pre-Mauryan era. Artifacts suggest that the site was continuously inhabited and flourished through the Sunga-Kushana period, then the Gupta period and finally the Pala-Sena period. From all indications Chandraketugarh was an important urban center, and most probably a port city. It had a high encircled wall with a rampart and a moat. The people were engaged in various crafts and mercantile activities. Although the religious inclinations of the people are unclear, hints of the beginning of some future cults can be traced in the artifacts. Some of the potteries carry inscriptions in Kharoshthi and Brahmi scripts.
Due to the inconsistencies in the ASI Review reports and lack of crucial data it is extremely difficult to draw a comprehensive and reliable stratigraphical picture of the site. Enamul Haque has presented an occupational sequence by studying the ASI Review reports and allowing for marginal adjustments. Let me reproduce it:

Earthen-pottery of Chadraketugarh
Period I 
Pre-Maurya, 600-300 B.C.
Period II 
Maurya, 300-200 B.C.
Period III 
Sunga, 200 B.C. - 50 A.D.
Period IV 
Kushan, 50-300 A.D.
Period V 
Gupta, 300-500 A.D.
Period VI 
Post-Gupta, 500-750 A.D.
Period VII 
Pala-Chandra-Sena, 750-1250 A.D.
Chandraketugarh excels in the beauty of its terracotta art. Even a cursory glance at one of its hundreds of terracotta plaques will astonish the viewer with its elegance and unusual precision of craftsmanship. For their artistic values these plaques are easily comparable to, if not surpassing, those found from relatively better known sites such as Kaushambi and Ahichhatra. In fact, terracotta plaques from these sites often carry similar motifs executed in nearly identical fashion. This points to an established communication link and common cultural heritage among these sites.
A large number of silver punch-marked coins and a few gold coins have been unearthed from Chandraketugarh. A gold coin of Chandragupta-Kumardevi deserves special mention. A large number of semi-precious stone beads, materials of ivory and bone were also unearthed from here. Even a few wooden objects of remarkable sculpting have survived.
Mr. Dilip Kumar Maite:
 is one of the earliest collectors of artifacts from the Chandraketugarh site. His collection, officially refered to as the Chandraketugarh Pratna Sangrahalaya, is located in his residential house, on the Taki Road only about 30 meters from the Berachampa's More.  He pointed out the peculiarity of the site in that the ancient city is "still" buried under the ground and due to the lack of any permanently excavated area, visitors do not see anything memorable. Reflecting Asad-uj Jaman's sentiment, he mentioned that a local museum is much needed for proper collection and preservation of the artifacts, as well as for the awareness of the public. With a bitter smile, he however let it out that his efforts towards this goal for the last few decades haven't met with any success, largely due to organizational apathy.
Mr. Asad-uj Jaman's 
resident-cum-museum is situated a few kilometers away from the Taki Road closer to the Chandraketugarh ramparts. From the ramparts, a narrow unmetalled road winds through green ricefields(a joy for the eyes!) -- keep right -- and under the shades of fragrant mango trees towards a local school. Once you are near the school, anyone can point you to Asad-uj Jaman's house.

Asad-uj Jaman confirmed that artifacts are still being unearthed in the nearby areas whenever the soil is dug to build a house or a pond. He agreed with Dilip Kumar Maite in the necessity of a local museum. He also mentioned that there is no mechanism in place to properly study and understand the artifacts currently discovered. "If an artifact carrying some ancient written characters is uncovered, it's not easy to get it read", he said.

My Observation and Conclusion:
After detail studying atrifacts pictures form Chandraketugarh I found some very strange similarities with atrifacts found in Indus Valley Civilization which are given below:-

1) Similar construction work found between "Indus Valley Bath" and "Khana-Mihirer Dhipi" found in Chandraketugarh.
Great Bath Of Indus Valley
2) Various Terracotta (Burned-Baked-Earthen Idol) figurines find both from Harappa and Chandraketugarh, Besides some of Terracotta figures were already presumed to be artwork of Maurya, Sunga, Kushan,Gupta period respectively. It  may be possible some terracotta figures waiting for their discovery.
Animal Seal of Indus similar with Two bird circular Seal of Chandraketugarh
3) Till today this heritage site not fully excavated . Nobel Lauriette Economist Dr Amartya Sen Think that Chandraketugarh not mere a small site but whole new Civilization can possibly found after detailed excavation.

4) Professor of Havard University Dr Sugata Bose even think that Chandraketugarh civilization may much older than Pre-Maurya Era. History of Bengal may rewritten after full excavation of the site.

5) The Chandraketugarh site and surrounding area could be the place known to ancient Greek and Roman writers as 'Gangaridai.

6) It May be possible, that after the great flood in Indus Valley civilization (Which may be the main cause of destruction of Indus civilization), post vedic civilization may shifted its base toward this part of the India (Anga, Banga , Kalinga area:modern Bengal, Orrisa and Bihar).

Earthen- Plate-Harappa.
7) Very  similar earthen Seal (Seal of two bird in Chandraketugarh) and earthen Pottery found in both Indus Valley and Chandraketugarh.
Red Earthen Pottery Of Indus-Valley
8) After the death of Saraswati river during post Vedic era Ganga was the main river . Bidyadhari River and Chandarketugarh may be the important dock of ancient India which may retold its history after full excavation.
9) Probable Different periods of Ancient India :
Vedic Age -------> Indus and Harappan Age -----> Age of Mahabharata -------> Age of Sodros (16)-Maha-Janapad ( Ancient India Divided into 16 major ancient City) --------> Nanda-Period-------> Kautilya and Chandragupta Mourya Period--------> Greek Invasion by Alexzander the great----------> King Ashoka period ---------> Sunga Dynasty ---------> Kushan Dynasty --------------> Gupta Period

Website Source and Photo From :  and  Ambarish Goswami (Special Thanks for His Valuable Photos).

Indus Valley Civilization was the continuation of Highly developed Ancient Indian Vedic Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization discovered by two well known Indian Rakhal Das Banerjee and Dayaram Sahani during British Raj in India. After detailed study British and other European Archaeologist cannot digest the truth that India ( which was then ruled by them) have this highly developed civilization (both in scientifically and technologically compared with Egyptian civilization).For that reason they forcefully invented the Aryan and Non-Aryan Theory to suppress rich Indian Vedic heritage. They said that creator of this  rich ancient  civilization were  Aryan (Who were originated from Europe) . According to them when Aryan invade India in ancient time and ruled over Non-Aryan (Native barbaric ancient Indian), from then the golden era of Vedic culture flourished.They also want to establish the fact that Vedic culture flourished after the age of Indus Valley Civilization.
In the recent discovery from the sites of Indus Valley Civilization like Mehergarh also from Dwaraka Gujarat established the contrary  to the belief.

1) From the underwater ruin of Dwarka (Lord Krishna`s  ancient Capital city which was immersed in the sea) archaeologist found metal tablet very similar which was found in Indus Valley civilization. This establish the link between two ages.

2) Recent findings from Indus Valley sites like Mahergarh  also establish the common link between Early Vedic ages and Indus valley civilization. Indus Valley was the continuation of Vedic Civilization.

3) New Discovery about the long dried out river " Saraswati". In various vedic text there mentioned about river Saraswati. During the Vedic age flows from North-West part of Bharat (ancient name of India) to modern Gujarat. The whole ancient vedic civilization florish around this river. Modern Rajasthan was very fertile land during that ancient era.
                                             When Saraswati river Dried out thic sacred river become known as Goddess "Saraswati". After the destruction of saraswati river vedic civilization experiences certain downfall, but after sometime this civilization regain its strength from Indus Valley Civilization.

4) Various scientifically and technically rich ancient vedic text was exported to Britain and then Europian country during British rule. German philosopher and great ancient text scholar Max Muller also clarify the importances of those ancient Indian Vedic texts (Vedas also) to shape up today`s Europian technology. Swami Vivekananda also establish the richness of ancient Vedic culture of India throughout the world.

5) Today`s  Continual expanding universe and Big Bang Theory only repetation of the truth which was written by the ancient sages during Vedic era .
       (By searching internet you can find all the evidences of my note)

6) Dr. S R Rao has written: 

"The discovery of the legendary city of Dwaraka which is said to have been founded by Sri Krishna, is an important landmark in the history of India. It has set to rest the doubts expressed by historians about the historicity of Mahabharata and the very existence of Dwaraka city. It has greatly narrowed the gap in Indian history by establishing the continuity of the Indian civilization from the Vedic Age to the present day."

7) According to Swami Vivekananda in his book Gyanajoga great ancient book "Gita" was the collection of main extracts from all Vedas. The whole content of Gita was narrated by the lord Sri Krishna to The Arjuna before the great kurukshetra war .  

All these above point may prove that Vedic age was far more ancient or prehistoric than Early Euroean scholar thought.Vedic civilization also created mainly by ancient Indian People not by Aryan (European originated Indian) people.During ancient Indian civilization there was two distinct culture florished 1) North Indian 2) South Indian.


Locations Of Indus Valley Civilization


Underwater Excavation of Dwarka


Dancing Girl of "Indus Valley Civilization

Great Bath of Mohen-jo-Daro


Bull Tablet found Both in Indus Valley and Dwarka


Swami Vivekananda in Chicago


Flow of Saraswati River

List of major event of ancient Indian History

Tuesday, 2 October 2012

Zarathustra: Great Prophet Who spread new religion which was the Teaching of Great God Ahuramazda: Also in Comics Form

Zarathustra Comics Cover


Zarathustra (Greek Zoroaster): legendary religious teacher from Bactria, founder of Zoroastrianism.

Life of Zarathustra:

Modern portrait of Zarathustra, inspired by Ahuramazda's dress on a relief of Taq-e Bostan

Hardly anything is known about Zarathustra's life. For example, it is uncertain when he lived. The ancient Greeks speculated that he lived six thousand years before the philosopher Plato and several scholars have argued for a date at the beginning of the sixth century BCE. Other scholars accept that Zarathustra is the author of the Gâthâ's (a part of the holy book of the Zoroastrians, the Avesta), which they date, on linguistic grounds, in the fourteenth or thirteenth century BCE.

It is also unclear where Zarathustra was born and where he spent the first half of his life. Every tribe that converted to Zoroastrianism made up legends about the prophet's life, and nearly all of them claimed that the great teacher was "one of them". On linguistic grounds, we may argue that author of the Gâthâ's belonged to a tribe that lived in the eastern part of Iran, in Afghanistan or Turkmenistan. This fits neatly with a tradition that connects Zarathustra with the ancient country named Bactria and a cypress at Kâshmar.

Zarathustra was born in Bactria (or Aria) as the son of a not very powerful nobleman named Purushaspa and a woman named Dughdhova. Zarathustra was the third of five brothers. He became a priest and seems to have showed a remarkable care for humans and cattle. The family is often called Spitama, which is a honorary title meaning 'most beneficient', but was later taken for a family name. 

Stone Idol of Ahura Mazda
 Zarathustra's life changed when the god Ahuramazda granted him a vision. A spirit named Good Thought appeared and ordered Zarathustra to oppose the bloody sacrifices of the traditional Iranian cults and to give aid to the poor.

A remarkable aspect of Zarathustra's teaching is that he employs special words to describe the demons. Their names are remarkably similar to words from the Indian Rigveda. Now it is reasonably certain that the language of the Rigveda was spoken in eastern Iran at some stage in the history of the second millennium BCE. We may assume that Zarathustra opposed the old religion, which was to flourish in the Punjab. 

Finally, Zarathustra obtained asylum from a king named Hystaspes; he may have ruled in Chorasmia or Aria. At his court, the prophet debated with the priests of Mithra; on an official gathering, they discussed thirty three questions, and Zarathustra's opinions prevailed. According to legend, the cypress at Kâshmar (in northeast Iran) commemorates this event (or another important event). The Denkard tells more about this even.

Many noblemen followed the example of Hystaspes to convert to Zarathustra's new religion. From now on, Zarathustra lived at the court of Hystaspes, until he was killed at the age of seventy-seven by invading nomads. Some locate his death at Bactra (Balkh, near modern Mazâr-e Sharîf) in Afghanistan.

The oldest Parsi scripture is known as Gatha. Later on it came to be written in Zend meaning commentary and Avesta, which is the language in which it was later written. Thus it is now known as Zendavesta.

Zendavesta : Sacred Book of Parsi

Zendavesta is divided in two parts:
The first part contains the Vendidad-a compilation of religious laws and stories, the Visperad-that contains litanies pertaining to sacrifice and the Yasna-also containing litanies and five hymns or Gathas in a special dialect.
The second part contains prayers and is known as Khorda Avesta or `small Avesta`.

Zend-Avesta - a collection of Zoroastrian texts

Avestan Language Zendavesta was such a language that could not be understood by the people. Then the Parsi priests translated it into Pahlavi, which is the ancient form of Persian language. French, German and British scholars tried to understand the language of Gatha and Zendavesta .In the process it gradually dawned upon them that the language of Gatha and Zendavesta has a great kinship with Sanskrit language. 

Parsi Navjote ceremony (rites of admission into the Zoroastrian faith). 

In Zoroastrianism, water (apo, aban) and fire (atar, adar) are agents of ritual purity, and the associated purification ceremonies are considered the basis of ritual life. In Zoroastrian cosmogony, water and fire are respectively the second and last primordial elements to have been created, and scripture considers fire to have its origin in the waters. Both water and fire are considered life-sustaining, and both water and fire are represented within the precinct of a fire temple. Zoroastrians usually pray in the presence of some form of fire (which can be considered evident in any source of light), and the culminating rite of the principle act of worship constitutes a "strengthening of the waters". Fire is considered a medium through which spiritual insight and wisdom is gained, and water is considered the source of that wisdom.

A Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd, Iran.

In Zoroastrianism, the Creator Ahura Mazda is all good, and no evil originates from him. Thus, in Zoroastrianism good and evil have distinct sources, with evil (druj) trying to destroy the creation of Mazda (asha), and good trying to sustain it. Mazda is not immanent in the world, and his creation is represented by the Amesha Spentas and the host of other Yazatas, through whom the works of God are evident to humanity, and through whom worship of Mazda is ultimately directed. The most important texts of the religion are those of the Avesta, of which a significant portion has been lost, and mostly only the liturgies of which have survived. The lost portions are known of only through references and brief quotations in the later works, primarily from the 9th to 11th centuries.

Zarathustra's teachings are strongly dualistic. The believer has to make a choice between good and evil. Zoroastrianism was one of first world religions to make ethical demands on the believers. 


While the Parsees in India have traditionally been opposed to proselytizing, probably for historical reasons, and even considered it a crime for which the culprit may face expulsion,Iranian Zoroastrians have never been opposed to conversion, and the practice has been endorsed by the Council of Mobeds of Tehran. While the Iranian authorities do not permit proselytizing within Iran, Iranian Zoroastrians in exile have actively encouraged missionary activities, with The Zarathushtrian Assembly in Los Angeles and the International Zoroastrian Centre in Paris as two prominent centres.

Faravahar is one of the best-known symbols of Zoroastrianism, the state religion of ancient Iran. This religious-cultural symbol was adapted by the Pahlavi dynasty to represent the Iranian nation.  carved Faravahar  persepolis

Faravahar  is one of the best-known symbols of Zoroastrianism, the state religion of ancient Iran. This religious-cultural symbol was adapted by the Pahlavi dynasty to represent the Iranian nation.

Other Characteristics Zoroastrianism:
In Zoroastrian tradition, life is a temporary state in which a mortal is expected to actively participate in the continuing battle between truth and falsehood. Prior to being born, the urvan (soul) of an individual is still united with its fravashi (guardian spirit), and which have existed since Mazda created the universe. During life, the fravashi acts as a guardian and protector. On the fourth day after death, the soul is reunited with its fravashi, in which the experiences of life in the material world are collected for the continuing battle in the spiritual world. For the most part, Zoroastrianism does not have a notion of reincarnation, at least not until the final renovation of the world. Despite this, followers of Ilm-e-Kshnoom in India believe in reincarnation and practice vegetarianism, two principles unknown to Orthodox Zoroastrianism.

The Towers of Silence are circular-shaped buildings that have funeral customs and symbols for adherents of Zoroastrianism.

In Zoroastrian scripture and tradition, a corpse is a host for decay, i.e., of druj. Consequently, scripture enjoins the "safe" disposal of the dead in a manner such that a corpse does not pollute the "good" creation. These injunctions are the doctrinal basis of the fast-fading traditional practice of "ritual exposure", most commonly identified with the so-called "Towers of Silence" for which there is no standard technical term in either scripture or tradition. 

The only Tower of Silence still active is located in Mumbai, but even in India, Zoroastrian

The practice of ritual exposure is only practised by Zoroastrian communities of the Indian subcontinent, where it is not illegal, but where alternative disposal methods are desperately sought after diclofenac poisoning has led to the virtual extinction of scavenger birds. Other Zoroastrian communities either cremate their dead, or bury them in graves that are cased with lime mortar.

Similarities between Hinduism and Zoroastrian:
1. Sacrificial rituals known as Yasnas in Zoroastrianism and Yajna in Hinduism.
2. Worship of gods bearing identical names such as Mithra and Yama or Yima.
3. Elements of both polytheism and monotheism.
4. Ritual chanting of manthra or mantras during religious ceremonies.
5. A three tier universe consisting of upper, middle and lower regions.
6. The concept of divine moral order called Arta or Asha in Zoroastrianism and Rta in Hinduism.
7. The conflict between good and evil forces with God on the side of the good forces.
8. The division of time into four periods in which good will progressively decline and evil would ascend to a point where God's intervention would become necessary.
9. God as protector and upholder of righteousness.
10. The concept of heaven and hell.
11. Death being viewed as the cause of impurities.

Life of  Zarathustra in Pictorial Comics Form: