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Wednesday, 27 February 2013

My Unusual Experiment with Mobile Phone`s Camera on My Micro Microscope



My Microscopic Slides Display In Animated Form







My Micro Microscope



My Unusual Experiment with Mobile Phone`s Camera on  My Micro Microscope




This Low Cost Beautiful Microscope Manufactured by  Micro Instruments. This Microscope is very low weight  handy can be carry anywhere. Battery Operated Internal Light installed therefore no external light Needed.This Microscope is suitable for any College Level Biology Students. Magnification as good as any other Normal Compound  Microscope.


My Micro Microscope



Specification of This Microscope is Given Below:

Model MM 02

Magnification : 100x, 450x (Using 10x Eye Pc) : 150x, 675x (Using 15x Eye Pc.)

Use its own Light Source (Battery Operated)

Battery : 9V, 6F 22 - One Required

Completely New and Very Special objectives have been used, Patent Technology

Viewing Field Same as Compound Microscope.

Weight Less than 200gms.

Can Be used Day and Night
                             
I Have Taken those Pictures (Given Below) With My LG Mobile Phone having 2 Megapixel Camera On  My Micro Microscope. 


Bacteria-Coccus-Form Overall Distant View





1) Bacteria-Coccus-Form:


Bacteria-Coccus-Form Close View




2) Lung-Mammal:





Mammalian Lung Picture Taken By Me



 


3) Bone-Mammal:



Bone Picture Taken By Me



4) Small-Intestine-Mammal:








Mammalian Small Intestine Picture Taken By Me




 


Mammalian Small Intestine Picture From Internet





5) Kidney-Mammal:

Mammalian Kidney Picture taken By Me



Mammalian Kidney Picture from Internet





6) Heart- Mammal:




Mammalian Heart picture Taken By me



7) Pancreas:


Pancreas Picture Taken By Me




Pancreas Picture with its Parts From Internet





1 - acinus
2 - islet of Langerhans
3 - interlobular connective tissue septa
4 - intralobular duct
5 - interlobular duct






8) Blood-Human:


Human Blood Picture Taken By Me







9) Plant Cells:



Plant Cell Picture Taken By Me







10) Monocot- Leaf:


Monocot Leaf Picture Taken By Me



Monocot Leaf Picture with its Part from Internet







11) Monocot-Stem:



Monocot Stem Picture Taken By Me



Monocot Stem Picture with its Parts from Internet








12) Dicot- Leaf:




Dicot Leaf  close Picture taken by Me


Dicot Leaf  Overall Distant Picture taken by Me



Dicot Leaf  Overall Distant Picture with its parts from Internet






















Human Male Reproductive Organs

Male Reproductive Organs in Animated Form




All Male Reproductive Organs in a Single Picture




REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:
The ability to reproduce is one if the properties distinguishing living from non-living matter.The mo0re primitive the animal,simpler the process of reproduction.In human being the process is one of  sexual reproduction,in which the male and female organs differ anatomically and physiologically.
  
 Both males and females produce specialized reproductive germ cell, called gametes. The male gametes are called spermatozoa and female gametes are called ova. They contain the genetic material, or genes called chromosomes,which pass inherited characteristics on to the next generation. Other body cell possess 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs but the gametes contain only 23, one from each pair.Gametes are formed by meiosis . At fertilisation,the fusion of an ovum and a spermatozoon,the resulting cell is called zygote, and now possesses the full complement of 46 chromosomes.The zygote embeds itself in the wall of the uterus where it grows and develop during the 40-weeks gestation period before birth.



Male Reproductive Organs







The functions of male reproductive system are: 


1) Production of spermatozoa.
2) Transmission of spermatozoa to the female.

URETHRA:
The male urethra provides a common pathway for the flow of urine and semen, the combined secretions of the male reproductive organs.It is about 19 to 20 cm long and consists of three parts.The prostatic urethra originates at the urethral orifies of the bladder and passes through the prostate gland.The membranous urethra is the shortest and narrowest part and extends from the prostate gland to the bulb of the penis, after passing through the perineal membrane.The spongiose or penile urethra lies within the corpus spongiosum of the penis and terminates at the external urethral orifies in the glans penis.



Penis, Urethra and other Male reproductive Organs




PENIS:

The penis has a root and a body .The root lies in the perineum and the body surrounds the urethra. It is formed by three cylindrical masses of erectile tissue and smooth muscle.The erectile tissue is supported by fibrous tissue and covered with skin and has a rich blood supply.The 2 lateral columns are called the corpora cavernosa and the column between them, containing the urethra,is the corpus spongiosum . At its tip it is expanded into a triangular structure known as the glans penis.Just above the glans the skin is folded upon itself and forms a movable double layer, The foreskin or prepuce.

Arterial blood is supplied by deep dorsal and bulbar arteries of the penis, which are branches from the internal pudendal arteries. A series of veins drain blood to the internal pudendal and internal iliac veins.The penis is supplied by autonomic and somatic nerves.Parasympathetic stimulation leads to  filling of spongy erectile tissue with blood,caused by arteriolar dilatation and venoconstiction, which increases blood flow into the penis and obstructs outflow. The penis therefore becomes engorged and erect, essential for intercourse.



Internal Structure of Testis







TESTES:
The testes are the reproductive glands of the male and are the equivalent of the ovaries in the female.They are about 4.5cm long, 2.5 cm wide and 3 cm thick and are suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cords.They are surrounded by 3 layers of tissue.

Tunica vaginalis:
This is a double membrane, forming the outer covering of the testes,and is down growth of the abdominal and pelvic peritoneum.During early fetal life, the testes, and is down growth of the abdominal and pelvic peritoneum.

Tunica albuginea:
This is a fibrous covering beneath the tunica vaginalis that surrounds the testes.In growths form septa, dividing the glandular structure of the testes into lobules.

Tunica vasculosa:
This consists of a network of capillaries supported by delicate connective tissue.

Function:
Spermatozoa(sperm) are produced in the seminiferous tubules of the testes, and mature as they pass through the long and convoluted epididymis, where they are stored.The hormone controls the sperm production is FSH from anterior pituitory.A mature sperm has a head , a body and long whip like tail used for motility. The head is almost completely filled by nucleus, containing its DNA.It also contain the enzymes that required to penetrate The outer layers of ovum to reach and fused with its nucleus. The body of the sperm is packed with mitochondria, to fuel the propelling action of the tail that powers the sperm along the female reproductive tract.Successful spermatogenesis takes place at a temperature about 3 degree below the normal temperature.The testes are cooledby their position outside the abdominal cavity,and the thin outer covering of the scrotum has very little insulating fat.



Penis, Urethra and other Male reproductive Organs






PROSTATE GLAND:
This lies in the pelvic cavity in front of the rectum and behind the symphysis pubis, surrounding the first part of the urethra.It consists of an outer covering, a layer of smooth muscle and glandular substance composed of columnar epithelium cells.It secrete a thin, milky fluid that makes up about 30 % of semen , and give its milky appearance.It contains a clotting enzymes, which thickens the semen in the vagina, increasing the likelihood of the semen being retained close to the cervix.

SEMINAL VESICLES:
This are 2 small fibromuscular pouches lined with columnar epithelium,lying on the posterior aspect of the bladder.At its lower end each seminal vesicle opens into short duct,which joins with the corresponding deferent duct to form an ejaculatory duct.

SCROTUM:
The scrotum is a pouch of deeply pigmented skin,fibrous and connective tissue and smooth muscle. it is divided into 2 compartments each of which contains one testis, one epididymis and the testicular end of a spermatic cord.It lies below the symphysis pubis,in front of the upper parts of the thighs and behind the penis.

EJACULATORY DUCTS:
The ejaculatory ducts are two tubes about 2 cm long,each formed by the union of the duct from a seminal vesicle and a deferent duct. They pass through the prostate gland and join the prostatic urethra.The ejaculatory ducts are composed of the same layers of tissue as the seminal vescles.

EJACULATION:
During ejaculation which occurs at male orgasm, spermatozoa are expelled from the epididymis and pass through the deferent duct, the ejaculatory ducts and urethra.The semen is propelled by powerful rhythmical contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the deferent duct; the muscular contractions are sympathetically mediated.Muscle in the walls of the seminal vesicles and prostate gland also contracts adding their contents to the fluid passing through the genital ducts. The force generated by this combined processes leads to emission of the semen through the external urethral sphincter.

Sperm comprise only 10% of the final ejaculate,the remainder being made up of seminal and prostatic fluids,which are added to the sperm during male orgasm, as well as mucus produced in the urethra.Semen is slightly alkaline, to neutralise the acidity of the vagina. Between 2 and 5 ml of semen are produced in a normal ejaculate, and contain between 40 and 100 million spermatozoa per ml.If not ejaculated, sperm gradually lose their fertility after several months and are reabsorbed by the epididymis.



Male Ejaculation Path



Human Female Reproductive Organs and Process of Reproduction




Female Reproductive Organs in Animated Form



All Female Reproductive Organs in a Single Page



REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:
The ability to reproduce is one if the properties distinguishing living from non-living matter.The mo0re primitive the animal,simpler the process of reproduction.In human being the process is one of  sexual reproduction,in which the male and female organs differ anatomically and physiologically.
  
 Both males and females produce specialised reproductive germ cell, called gametes. The male gametes are called spermatozoa and female gametes are called ova. They contain the genetic material, or genes called chromosomes,which pass inherited characteristics on to the next generation. Other body cell possess 46 chromosomes arranged in 23 pairs but the gametes contain only 23, one from each pair.Gametes are formed by meiosis . At fertilisation,the fusion of an ovum and a spermatozoon,the resulting cell is called zygote, and now possesses the full complement of 46 chromosomes.The zygote embeds itself in the wall of the uterus where it grows and develop during the 40-weeks gestation period before birth.



FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM







FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM:

UTERINE TUBES (Fallopian):
The uterine(Fallopian) tubes are about 10 cm long and extends from the sides of the uterus between the and the fundus.They lie in the upper free border of the broad ligament and their trumpet-shaped lateral ends penetrates the posterior wall, opening into the peritoneal cavity close to the overies.The end of each tube has finger like projections called fimbria,which is in close association with the ovary.

Function:
The uterine tubes move the ovum from the ovary to the uterus by peristalsis and ciliary movement.



Picture and Internal Structure of Ovary







OVARIES:
The ovaries are the female gonads(Glands producing sex hormone and ova), and they lie in a shallow fossa on the lateral walls of the pelvis.They are 2.5 to 3.5 cm long, 2 cm wide and 1 cm thick.Each is attached to the upper part of the uterus by the ovarian ligament and to the back of the broad ligament by a broad band of tissue, the mesovarium.Blood vessel and nerves pass to the ovary through the mesovarium.

Structure of the ovaries:
The ovaries have 2 layers of tissue.

Medulla:
This lies in the centre and consists of fibrous tissue, blood vessels and nerves.

Cortex:
This surrounds the medulla.It has a frame work of connective tissue or stroma, covered by germinal epithelium.It contains ovarian follicles in various stages of maturity,each of which contains an ovum.Before puberty the ovaries are inactive but the stroma already contains immature (Primordial) follicles,which the female has from birth.During the childbearing years about every 28 days, one ovarian follicle(Graafian follicle) matures,ruptures and releases its ovum into the peritoneal cavity.This is called ovulation and its occur during most menstrual cycles.

Function:
Maturation of the follicle is stimulated by follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) from the anterior pituitory; and oestrogen secreted by the follicle linning cells.Ovulation is triggered by a surge of luteinising hormone(LH) from the anterior pituitory,Which occurs a few hours before ovulation.After ovulation, the follicle linning cells develop into the corpus leutium(yellowbody),under the influence of LH from the anterior pituitory.The corpus leutium produces thye hormone progesterone and some oestrogen.

If the ovum is fertilised it embed itself in the walls of uterus where it grows and develop and produces the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG) , which stimulate the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and oestrogen for the first three month of pregnancy,after which time this function is continued by the placenta.If the ovum is not fertilised the corpus luteum an inactive mass of fibrous tissue forms, called the corpus albicans.Sometimes more than one follicle matures at a time,releasing two or more than one follicle matures  at a time,releasing 2 or more ova in the same cycle.When this happens and the ova are fertilised the result is a multiple pregnancy.



Detailed Structure and Picture of Uterus



Uterus:
The uterus is  a hollow pear shaped muscular pear-shaped organ, flattened anterio posteriorly.It lies in the pelvic cavity between the urinary bladder and the rectum.
  
In most women, it leans forward (anteversion) and is bend forward (anteflexsion) almost at right angles to the vagina, so that its anterior wall rest partly aganist the bladder below, and forming the vesicouterine pouch between the two organs.
  
When the body is upright, the uterus lies in an almost horizontal position.It is about 7.5 cm long , 5cm wide and its wall are about 2.5 cm thick.It weights from 30 to 40 grams.The parts of the uterus are the fundus, body and cervix.

Fundus:
This is the dome-shaped part of the uterus above the openings of the uterine tubes.

Body:
This is the main part. It is narrowest inferiorly at the internal os where it is continuous with the cervix.

Cervix(Neck of the uterus).
This protrudes through the anterior wall of the vagina, opening into it at the external os.

Structure:
The walls of the uterus are composed of 3 layres of tissue: Perimetrium, Myometrium, Endometrium.

Perimetrium:
This is peritoneum which is distributed diffrently on the various surfaces of the uterus.Anterior it extends over the fundus  and the body where it is folded on to the upper surface of the urinary bladder. This fold of peritoneum forms the vesticouterine pouch.Posteriorly the peritoneum extends over the fundus, of the body and the cervix, then it continues on to the rectum to form the rectouterine pouch. Laterally only the fundus is covered because the peritoneum forms the double fold with the uterine tubes in the upper free border.This double fold is the broad ligament, which at its lateral ends, attaaches the uterus to the sides of pelvis.

Myometrium:
This is the thickest layer of tissue in the uterine wall.It is a mass of smooth muscle fibres interlaced with areolar tissue,
blood vessels and nerves.

Endometrium:
This consist of columner epithelium containig a large number of mucus-secreting tubular glands.It is divided functionally
into two layers.

The functional layers: is the upper layer and its thickens and become rich in blood vessels in the first half of the menstrual cycle.

The basal layer: lies next to the myometrium, and is not lost during menstruation.It is the layer from which the fresh functional layer is regenerated during each cycle.

Functions:
After puberty, the endometrium of the uterus goes through a regular monthly cycle of changes, the menstrual cycle,under the control of hypothalamic and anterior pituitory hormones.The purpose of cycle is to prepare the uterus to receive, nourish and protect a fertilised ovum.The cycle is usually regular, lasting between 26 and 30 days.If the ovum is not fertilised anew cycle begins with a short period of bleeding (menstruation).



External Structure of Female Reproductive Organ






Clitoris:
This corresponds to the penis in the male and contains sensory nerve endings and etectile tissue, but it has no reproductive significance.

Labia majora:
These are 2 large folds froming the boundary of vulva.They are composed of skin,fibrous tissue and fat and contain large number of sebaceous glands.Anteriorly the fold join in front of the symphysis pubis, and posteriorly they merge with the skin of the perineum.At puberty, hair grows on the mons pubis and on the lateral surfaces of the labia majora.

Labia minora:
These are 2 smaller folds of skin between the labia majora,containing numerous sebaceous glands.The cleft between the labia minora is the vestibule.The vagina, urethra and ducts of the greater vestibular glands open into the vestibule.

Vagina:
The vagina is a fibromuscular tube lined with stratified squamous epithelium, connecting the external and internal organs of reproduction.It runs obliquely upwards and backwards at an angle of about 45 degree between the bladder in front and rectum and anus behind.In the adult, the anterior wall is about 7.5 cm long and the posterior wall about 9 cm long.The difference is due to the angle of insertion of the cervix through the anterior wall.

Structure:
It is 3 layered: an outer covering of areolar tissue, a middle layer of smooth muscle and an inner linning of stratified squamous epithelium that forms ridges or rugae. It has no secretory glands but the surface is kept moist by cervical secretions. Between puberty and menopause, Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria are normally present, which secrete lactic acids, maintaining the PH between 4.9 and 3.5. The acidity inhibits the growth of most other microbes that may enter the
vagina from the perineum.

Function:
The vagina acts as receptacle for the penis during coitus, and provides an elastic passageway through which the baby passes during childbirth.



Female MENSTRUAL CYCLE








MENSTRUAL CYCLE:

This is a series of events,occuring regularly in females every 26 to 30 days throughout the childbearing period of about 36 years.The cycle consists of series of changes taking place concurrently in the ovary and uterine walls, stimulated by changes in blood concentration of hormones.Hormones secreted in a cycle are regulated by negative feedback mechanisms.  The hypothalamus secretes lutenising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH),which stimulates the anterior pituitory to secrete.

Menstrual phase:
When the ovum is not fertilised, the corpus luteum strats to degenerate.Progesterone nad oestrogen levels therefore falls, and the functional level of endometrium,which is depended on high level of these ovarian hormones, is shed in menstruation.The menstrual flow consists of the secretions from endometrial glands, endometrial cells, blood from the broken down cappilaries and the unfertilised ovum.High circulating levels of ovarian progesterone and oestrogen inhibit the anterior pituitory,blocking the release of FSH and LH, and should pregnancy occur then rising oestrogen and progesterone levels therefore prevent the maturation and release of another ovum.After degenaration of the corpus luteum,however, falling levels of oestrogen and progesterone lead to resumed anterior pituitory activity, rising FSH levels and the initiation of the next cycle.

Proliferative phase:
At this stage the ovarian follicle, stimulated by FSH, is growing towards maturity and is producing oestrogen, which stimulates proliferation of the functional layer of the endometrium in preparation for the reception of a fertilised ovum.The endometrium thickens,becoming very vascular and rich in mucus-secreting glands.This phase ends when ovulation occurs and oestrogen production by the follicle declines.

Secretory Phase:
Immediately after ovulation, the cells linning the ovarian follicle are stimulated by LH and develop into the corpus luteum,which produces progesterone and some oestrogen.Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium becomes oedematous and the secretory galnds produce increased amounts of watery mucus.This is believed to assists the passage of the spermatozoa through the uterus to the uterine tubes where the ovum is usually fertilised.

There is a similar increase in the secretion of watery mucus by the glands of the uterine tubes and by cervical glands that lubricate the vagina. The ovum may survive in a fertilisable form for a very short time after ovulation, probably as little as 8 hours.The spermatozoa, deposited in the vagina during intercourse, may be capable of fertilising the ovum for only about 24 hours although they can survive for several days.

This means that the period of each cycle during which fertilisation can occur is relatively short.Observable changes in the women`s body occur around the time of ovulation.Cervical mucus normally thick and dry,becomes thin,elastic and watery and body temparature rises by a small but measurable amount immidiately following ovulation.Some women experience abdominal discomfort in the middle of the cycle,Thought to correspond to rupture of the follicle and release of its contents into the abdominal cavity.

If the ovum is fertilised there is no breakdown of the endometrium and no menstuation.The fertilised ovum(zygote) travels through the uterine tube to the uterus where it becomes embedded in the wall and produces Human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG),which is similar to anterior pituitory luteinising hormone.This hormone keeps the corpus luteum intact,enabling it to continue secreting progesterone and oestrogen for the first 3 to 4 months of the pregnancy,inhibiting the maturation of further ovarian follicles.During that time the placenta develops and produces oestrogen,progesterone and gonadotrophins

The functions of female reproductive system are:
1) Formation of ova.
2) Reception of spermatozoa
3) Provision of suitable enviroments for fertilisation and fetal development.
4) Childbirth(Parturition).
5) Lactation,The production of breast milk,Which provides complete nourishment for the baby in its early life.



Different Phases of fetus within The Mother Womb






PROCESSES OF FERTILISATION:

EJACULATION:
During ejaculation which occurs at male orgasm, spermatozoa are expelled from the epididymis and pass through the deferent duct, the ejaculatory ducts and urethra.The semen is propelled by powerful rhythmical contraction of the smooth muscle in the walls of the deferent duct; the musculur contractions are sympathetically mediated.Muscle in the walls of the seminal vesicles and prostate gland also contracts adding their contents to the fluid passing through the genital ducts. The force generated by this combined processes leads to emmision of the semen through the external urethral sphincter.

Sperm comprise only 10% of the final ejaculate,the remainder being made up of seminal and prostatic fluids,which are added to the sperm during male orgasm, as well as mucus produced in the urethra.Semen is slightly alkaline, to neutralise the acidity of the vagina. Between 2 and 5 ml of semen are produced in a normal ejaculate, and contain between 40 and 100 million spermatozoa per ml.If not ejaculated, sperm gradually lose their fertility after several months and are reabsorbed by the epididymis.

Ovaries Function:

Maturation of the follicle is stimulated by follicle stimulating hormone(FSH) from the anterior pituitory; and oestrogen secreted by the follicle linning cells.Ovulation is triggered by a surge of luteinising hormone(LH) from the anterior pituitory,Which occurs a few hours before ovulation.After ovulation, the follicle linning cells develop into the corpus leutium(yellow body),under the influence of LH from the anterior pituitory.The corpus leutium produces thye hormone progesterone and some oestrogen.If the ovum is fertilised it embed itself in the walls of uterus where it grows and develop and produces the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG) , which stimulate the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and oestrogen for the first three month of pregnancy,after which time this function is continued by the placenta.If the ovum is not fertilised the corpus luteum an inactive mass of fibrous tissue forms, called the corpus albicans. Sometimes more than one follicle matures at a time,releasing two or more than one follicle matures  at a time,releasing 2 or more ova in the same cycle.When this happens and the ova are fertilised the result is a multiple pregnancy.

UTERUS AFTER FERTILISATION:
If the ovum is fertilised the zygote embeds itself in the uterine wall. The uterine muscle grows to accomodate the developing baby,which is called an embryo during its first 8 weeks, and a fetus for the remainder of pregnancy.Uterine secretion nourish the ovum before it implants in the endometrium, and after implantation the rapidly expanding ball of cells is nourished by the endometrium cells themselves. This is sufficient for only the first few weeks and the placenta is the organ that takes over thereafter.

The placenta. which is attached to the fetus by the umbilical chord, is firmly attached to the wall of the uterus, and provides the route by which the growing baby receives oxygen and nutrients, and get rids of its wastes. During pregnancy which normally lasts about 40 weeks ,the muscular wall of uterus are prevented from contracting and expelling the baby early by high levels of hormone progesterone secreted by placenta.At the end of pregnancy ( at term) the hormone oestrogen,which increases uterine contractility, becomes the predominant sex hormone in the blood. Additionally; oxytocin is released from the posterior pituitory, and also stimulates the uterine muscle.Control of oxytocin release is by positive feedback.During labour, the uterus forcefully expels the baby by means of powerful rhythmical contractions.

When Ovum is Fertilised:

If the ovum is fertilised there is no breakdown of the endometrium and no menstuation.The fertilised ovum(zygote) travels through the uterine tube to the uterus where it becomes embedded in the wall and produces Human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG),which is similar to anterior pituitory luteinising hormone.This hormone keeps the corpus luteum intact,enabling it to continue secreting progesterone and oestrogen for the first 3 to 4 months of the pregnancy,inhibiting the maturation of further ovarian follicles.During that time the placenta develops and produces oestrogen,progesterone and gonadotrophins.





video





3D Animation Showing Process of Fertilization and Fetus Development in Mother`s Womb.

From My library (1) : 5 Unique Books With a Difference to Satiate your Imaginative Hunger and also stimulate your grey Cells





Display Animation of 5 Books


 5 Unique Books With a Difference to Satiate your Imaginative Hunger and also stimulate your grey Cells



Book : AT HOME IN THE UNIVERSE: Author : STUART ALAN KAUFFMAN:

 


Book : AT HOME IN THE UNIVERSE: Author : STUART ALAN KAUFFMAN:

 A major scientific revolution has begun, a new paradigm that rivals Darwin's theory in importance. At its heart is the discovery of the order that lies deep within the most complex of systems, from the origin of life, to the workings of giant corporations, to the rise and fall of great civilizations. And more than anyone else, this revolution is the work of one man, Stuart Kauffman, a MacArthur Fellow and visionary pioneer of the new science of complexity. Now, in At Home in the Universe, Kauffman brilliantly weaves together the excitement of intellectual discovery and a fertile mix of insights to give the general reader a fascinating look at this new science--and at the forces for order that lie at the edge of chaos.

We all know of instances of spontaneous order in nature--an oil droplet in water forms a sphere, snowflakes have a six-fold symmetry. What we are only now discovering, Kauffman says, is that the range of spontaneous order is enormously greater than we had supposed. Indeed, self-organization is a great undiscovered principle of nature. But how does this spontaneous order arise? Kauffman contends that complexity itself triggers self-organization, or what he calls "order for free," that if enough different molecules pass a certain threshold of complexity, they begin to self-organize into a new entity--a living cell. Kauffman uses the analogy of a thousand buttons on a rug--join two buttons randomly with thread, then another two, and so on.

At first, you have isolated pairs; later, small clusters; but suddenly at around the 500th repetition, a remarkable transformation occurs--much like the phase transition when water abruptly turns to ice--and the buttons link up in one giant network. Likewise, life may have originated when the mix of different molecules in the primordial soup passed a certain level of complexity and self-organized into living entities (if so, then life is not a highly improbable chance event, but almost inevitable).

Kauffman uses the basic insight of "order for free" to illuminate a staggering range of phenomena. We see how a single-celled embryo can grow to a highly complex organism with over two hundred different cell types. We learn how the science of complexity extends Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection: that self-organization, selection, and chance are the engines of the biosphere. And we gain insights into biotechnology, the stunning magic of the new frontier of genetic engineering--generating trillions of novel molecules to find new drugs, vaccines, enzymes, biosensors, and more. Indeed, Kauffman shows that ecosystems, economic systems, and even cultural systems may all evolve according to similar general laws, that tissues and terra cotta evolve in similar ways. And finally, there is a profoundly spiritual element to Kauffman's thought. If, as he argues, life were bound to arise, not as an incalculably improbable accident, but as an expected fulfillment of the natural order, then we truly are at home in the universe.

Kauffman's earlier volume, The Origins of Order, written for specialists, received lavish praise. Stephen Jay Gould called it "a landmark and a classic." And Nobel Laureate Philip Anderson wrote that "there are few people in this world who ever ask the right questions of science, and they are the ones who affect its future most profoundly. Stuart Kauffman is one of these." In At Home in the Universe, this visionary thinker takes you along as he explores new insights into the nature of life.


Stuart Alan Kauffman (born September 28, 1939) is an American theoretical biologist and complex systems researcher who studies the origin of life on Earth.

In 1971, Kauffman proposed the self-organized emergence of collectively autocatalytic sets of polymers, specifically peptides, for the origin of molecular reproduction Reproducing peptide, DNA, and RNA collectively autocatalytic sets have now been made experimentally. He is best known for arguing that the complexity of biological systems and organisms might result as much from self-organization and far-from-equilibrium dynamics as from Darwinian natural selection, as well as for applying models of Boolean networks to simplified genetic circuits. His hypotheses stating that cell types are attractors of such networks, and that genetic regulatory networks are "critical" have found experimental support.


Book : NEXT : Author : MICHAEL CRICHTON:

 


Book : NEXT : Author : MICHAEL CRICHTON:



Next is a 2006 techno-thriller novel by Michael Crichton, the last to be published during his lifetime. Next takes place in the present world, where both the government and private investors spend billions of dollars every year on genetic research. The novel follows many characters, including transgenic animals, in the quest to survive in a world dominated by genetic research, corporate greed, and legal interventions.

Welcome to our genetic world. Fast , furious, and out of control. This is not the world of the future - it`s the world right now. Is a loved one Missing some body parts? Are Blondes becoming Extinct? is everyone at your dinner table of the same species?  Human and Chimpanzees differ in only 400 genes; is that why a Chimp fetus resembles a human being? And should that worry us? There`s a New Ganetic Cure For Drug Addiction - is it worse than the disease?

We live in the time of Momentous Scientific Leaps, a time when it`s possible to Sell our Eggs and Sperm online for thousands of dollars and to test our spouses for genetic maladies. We live in a time when one fifth of all Our Genes are owned by Someone else, and an unsuspecting person and his family within their Chrosomomes......

Devilishly clever , Next Blend fact and Fiction into a breathless tale of a new world where nothing is what it seems and a set of new possibilities can open at every turn. Next  challenges our sense of reality and notions of Mortality. Balancing The Comic and the Bizarre with the genuinely Frightening and Disturbing. Next Shatters our assupmtions and reveals Shocking new choices where we least expect.

John Michael Crichton (October 23, 1942 – November 4, 2008) was an American best-selling author, producer, director, and screenwriter, best known for his work in the science fiction, medical fiction, and thriller genres. His books have sold over 200 million copies worldwide, and many have been adapted into films. In 1994, Crichton became the only creative artist ever to have works simultaneously charting at No. 1 in television, film, and book sales (with ER, Jurassic Park, and Disclosure, respectively).

His literary works are usually based on the action genre and heavily feature technology. His novels epitomize the techno-thriller genre of literature, often exploring technology and failures of human interaction with it, especially resulting in catastrophes with biotechnology. Many of his future history novels have medical or scientific underpinnings, reflecting his medical training and science background. He was the author of, among others, The Andromeda Strain, Jurassic Park, Congo, Travels, Sphere, Rising Sun, Disclosure, The Lost World, Airframe, Timeline, Prey, State of Fear, Next (the final book published before his death), Pirate Latitudes (published November 24, 2009), and a final unfinished techno-thriller, Micro, which was published in November 2011.


Book: THE SEQUENCE : Author : KEVIN DAVIES

 

Book: THE SEQUENCE : Author : KEVIN DAVIES




a group of scientists began to formulate a plan to assemble the complete sequence of all 3 billion letters of human DNA. After years of argument about the cost and wisdom of a quest to systematically sequence our genetic makeup, the human genome project finally got under way in 1990, with 2005 as the scheduled year of completion. "When the project was launched as a joint venture between the US and UK governments in 1990, it was inconceivable that anyone else would have the technology, the expertise or the financial resources to even enter the race, let alone win it. In 1998, however, the brash scientist, millionaire and world-class Yachtsman J. Craig Venter announced that his company, Celera, would use high-powered sequencing machines to complete the sequence from scratch, in three years. "Going beyond the headlines and the newsprint, The Sequence tells the compelling story of the race between the official government-sponsored project led by the brilliant geneticist Francis Collins, and the renegade biotech company founded by Venter. Venter's aim was to be able to patent hundreds of genes and sell precious information about the genome sequence to the pharmaceutical industry, for a fortune. Collins's brief was to speed .

THE SEQUENCE is the definitive account of what has been described as the single most important scientific breakthrough of modern times - the elucidation of mankind's complete genetic script. It is a story in which science, politics, business and society meet head on. At its heart is the race between the $3 billion Human Genome Project led by the brilliant geneticist Francis Collins, and a renegade biotech company founded by the scientist-entrepreneur J. Craig Venter. This riveting book takes the reader into the labs and lives of these and other researchers who in late 2000 completed the first draft of the human genome. Regardless of who 'won' the race, the stakes involved in this remarkable work are staggeringly high.


Kevin Davies 

Author, The Sequence

Author, The $1,000 Genome

Editor in Chief, Bio-IT World

Founding Editor, Nature Genetics

Kevin Davies, Ph.D., is the author of Cracking the Genome, an inside account of the race for the Human Genome Project hailed by one reviewer as “A rollicking good tale about an enduring intellectual monument.” His book, The $1000 Genome, details the revolution in personal medicine as individuals can affordably read their complete DNA sequence.
Davies is currently the Editor-in-Chief of Bio-IT World, a monthly magazine covering technology in the life sciences, published by Cambridge Healthtech Institute. He is the founding editor of Nature Genetics and has also worked at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Cell Press.
A frequent commentator on genome issues in print, television and radio, Davies has delivered lectures on the genome project and its impact on medicine in Tokyo, Beijing, Delhi, Madrid, London, Dublin, Boston, and San Francisco.
A graduate of Oxford University, Davies earned his PhD in genetics from St Mary’s Hospital, University of London.


Book : THE KRISHNA KEY : Author : ASHWIN SANGHI :

 

Book : THE KRISHNA KEY : Author : ASHWIN SANGHI :




Sanghi explores the myth of Kalki - the final avatar of Krishna (also known as Vishnu in Indian mythology) - through a tale of murder and an ensuing chase that travels back and forth in time from Vrindavan and Mathura to a classroom in St. Stephen's College in Delhi, across lifetimes.

Forty-five-year old professor Ravi Mohan Saini, who teaches the history of mythology at St. Stephen's College, is the unlikely sleuth who scouts on the trail of a "poor" little rich boy Taraak who believes he is Kalki. In Sanghi's gripping tale, Kalki is a serial killer who embarks on his bloody journey with the murder of Anil Varshney, a young symbolist in Rajasthan. Varshney is Saini's oldest friend. And his murder at the beginning of the narrative - a la "The Da Vinci Code" - becomes the spur in Saini's life, turning him into a sort of Robert Langdon, the star of Dan Brown's cult classic - looking for clues to the gruesome death.

"I was influenced by the 'Holy Blood, Holy Grail'. Dan Brown came as an afterthought. But had I not read Dan Brown , I would not have written "The Rozbal Line" and delved into the sacred feminine...It is like two sandwiches on a platter with different 'chutneys'," Sanghi told IANS.

Sanghi breaks his saga with interludes from the life of Krishna.The writer speaks of the deity in first person at the beginning of every chapter - recounting from the birth of the deity to his journey to Dwarka. And the subsequent destruction of the kingdom.

The writer chose the Mahabharata as his reference point. "This (life of Krishna) is the stuff we have heard of - I have used it not from a mythological perspective but from a historical perspective. I like to look at mythology as the hidden truth. Get rid of the layers of colours and frills and what we will be left with is a single sliver of truth," Sanghi said.

"The Krishna Key", however, moves closer to history - one that is recorded in the Puranas about the last avatar of Vishnu - than his two previous novels. In "The Rozbal Line", Sanghi spun a fictional tale of murder and redemption around the Christian myth of Jesus Christ fleeing to Kashmir soon after crucifixion to live a long and fulfilling life. In "Chanakya's Chant", he plays on the myth of Chanakya to spin a modern-day political thriller.

"The Kalki Purana and the Bible have substantial cross-pollination. For me, Kalki is nothing else in the book but the backbone for the thriller construct. The Kalki Purana had many references to Vishnu and I wanted to understand more about Vishnu," Sanghi said.

The writer started out with C. Rajagopalachari's translation of the Mahabharata in English. "I wanted to have a historical perspective of Krishna, how his life is spoken about in the sacred texts. The Mahabharata has an appendix to it - the Harivamsh that talks of Krishna's life from the time he is born to the time Dwarka goes down in a deluge," Sanghi said.

The book serves a more basic purpose. It draws the thriller addicts and the Gen Y to the rich archive of Indian history and myths that have sprung around events before our time.

Ashwin Sanghi (born January 25, 1969) is an Indian author. He has written several books on thriller fiction based on historical, theological and mythological themes. He is one of the Indian conspiracy fiction and is part of a broader trend of retelling Indian history or mythology in a contemporary context.

Sanghi completed his schooling at the Cathedral & John Connon School, graduated with a BA (Economics) from St. Xavier’s College and earned an MBA from the Yale School of Management. He joined his family’s business in 1993. He wrote his first novel in 2006 and thereafter continued to pursue dual careers, as a businessman as well as a writer. He is part of the overall trend of young professionals and businessmen turning to writing as a parallel career

Book :THE SECRET OF THE NAGAS (SHIVA TRILOGY 2) :Author : AMISH


 


Book :THE SECRET OF THE NAGAS (SHIVA TRILOGY 2) :Author : AMISH




The Shiva of The Secret of the Nagas is not the unsure and ambiguous nomad from the first book, but a happy, confident man. He has left behind his homeland and settled into the role of being the saviour quite comfortably. Sati and he are happily married. The weed in the plains is better. The one dark spot is Shiva’s need to avenge the murder of his friend, Brahaspati, who was killed by a mysterious Naga assassin in The Immortals of Meluha. Despite the snake on the cover, the Nagas have little serpentine about them. They are all humans with physical abnormalities who have been abandoned by their family because the law demands Nagas be exiled. The Nagas have their own kingdom and the exact location of their capital, Panchvati, is a carefully guarded secret. In the course of The Secret of the Nagas, Shiva learns that appearances can be misleading. The identity of the Naga assassin and Panchvati are discovered, and among the new additions to Shiva’s entourage are Kali, Ganesh, Kartik and Parashuram.

Amish’s retelling of myths in The Secret of the Nagas is not particularly fun or clever. Unlike in The Immortals of Meluha, getting Amished in The Secret of the Nagas leads to far less interesting versions of both Kali and Parashuram. Ganesh is perhaps the worst hit because so little of his story actually makes sense. The uncomfortable relationship between Shiva and Ganesh in Hindu myths gets beaten to flat simplicity. More subtly hit is the Bengali community. A substantial part of The Secret of the Nagas concerns Brangas, who are Amished Bengalis from an ancient era. The Brangas are clever and rich but are afflicted by a weird plague for which the natural antidote is peacock blood. So, in order to survive, Amished Bengalis have to kill the national bird and drink its blood. Plus, the prime minister of the Branga kingdom is a man festooned with gold jewellery, whose name is Bappiraj, thus bringing music director Bappi Lahiri into the Shiva Trilogy.

Amish’s attempts at philosophy are as half-baked as the characters and plot. For example, he suggests thoughts are radio waves that could be communicated by temples, which were actually powerful transmitters (see pages 111-112). Unlike Bappiraj, who is clearly an attempt at humour, the temple-transmitter theory is elaborated upon in all seriousness. Now, thanks to Amish, we’re seeing the temples of India as the Facebook for ancient priests.

Amish Tripathi (born on 18 October 1974) is an Indian author. He is known for his novels The Immortals of Meluha and The Secret of the Nagas. Tripathi's debut work The Immortals of Meluha was a surprise bestseller, breaking into the top seller charts within a week of its launch.

Amish Tripathi is an alumnus of Indian Institute of Management Calcutta. Although he originally wanted to be a historian, Tripathi initially chose a career in finance because he couldn't afford the former. He worked for 14 years in the financial services industry, in companies such as Standard Chartered, DBS Bank and IDBI Federal Life Insurance, before starting his writing career.

The Immortals of Meluha, Tripathi's first novel, was published in February 2010. It is the first book in the Shiva Trilogy. The second book in the series, The Secret of the Nagas, was released on 12 August 2011. The third installment, titled The Oath of the Vayuputras, is expected to be released in March 2013. The trilogy is a fantasy re-imagining of the Indian deity Shiva's life and adventures.

The Immortals of Meluha and The Secret of the Nagas, the first two novels by Tripathi, have been commercial successes. Amish's books have sold a million copies in the span of two years with a gross retail sale of Rs 22 crores. The Shiva Trilogy has been referred to as "one of the most successful book series in the history of Indian publishing".

The movie rights of The Immortals of Meluha were purchased by Dharma Productions in early 2012.



 5 Unique Books With a Difference to Satiate your Imaginative Hunger and also stimulate your grey Cells

Vedic Maths : Vedic mental mathematics (Part 1)





Vedic Math Animated Post








Vedic Maths Post









Vedic Mathematics



Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji







Tirthaji and the rediscovery of Vedic Mathematics



The ancient system of Vedic Mathematics was rediscovered from the Indian Sanskrit texts known as the Vedas, between 1911 and 1918 by Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji (1884-1960). At the beginning of the twentieth century, when there was a great interest in the Sanskrit texts in Europe, Bharati Krsna tells us some scholars ridiculed certain texts which were headed 'Ganita Sutras'- which means mathematics. They could find no mathematics in the translation and dismissed the texts as rubbish. Bharati Krsna, who was himself a scholar of Sanskrit, Mathematics, History and Philosophy, studied these texts and after lengthy and careful investigation was able to reconstruct the mathematics of the Vedas. According to his research all of mathematics is based on sixteen Sutras, or word-formulae.



Bharati Krsna wrote sixteen volumes expounding the Vedic system but these were unaccountably lost and when the loss was confirmed in his final years he wrote a single book: Vedic Mathematics, currently available. It was published in 1965, five years after his death.


Sri Shankaracharya










Development of further material



A copy of the book was brought to London a few years later and some English mathematicians (Kenneth Williams, Andrew Nicholas, Jeremy Pickles) took an interest in it. They extended the introductory material given in Bharati Krsna's book and gave many courses and talks in London. A book (now out of print), Introductory Lectures on Vedic Mathematics, was published in 1981. Between 1981 and 1987 Andrew Nicholas made four trips to India initially to find out what further was known about it. Following these journeys a renewed interest was taken by scholars and teachers in India. It seems that once they saw that some people in the West took Vedic Mathematics seriously they realised they had something special. St James' School, then in Queensgate, London, and other schools began to teach the Vedic system, with notable success. Today Vedic Mathematics is taught widely in schools in India and a great deal of research is being done. Three further books appeared in 1984, the year of the centenary of the birth of Sri Bharati Krsna Tirthaji. These were published by The Vedic Mathematics Research Group.







Maharishi Schools



When Maharishi Mahesh Yogi began to explain the significance and marvelous qualities of Vedic Mathematics in 1988, Maharishi Schools around the world began to teach it. At the school in Skelmersdale, Lancashire a full course was written and trialled for 11 to 14 year old pupils, called The Cosmic Computer. (Maharishi had said that the Sutras of Vedic Mathematics are the software for the cosmic computer- the cosmic computer runs the entire universe on every level and in every detail). This course was published in March 1998 (titled The Cosmic Calculator).



Vedic Math Books








Calculating Prodigies



People who can perform astonishingly long or complex calculations in their head are often called calculating prodigies or lightning calculators. There are many examples from the past, from Jedediah Buxton who worked as a labourer and remained illiterate all his life to Karl Friedrich Gauss a mathematician who is ranked with Newton and Archimedes. Since Vedic Mathematics is the most efficient mathematical system it would be interesting to ask whether these calculating prodigies may have used it.



It is peculiar to arithmetic that once the basic facts are understood any intelligent person can construct the whole science: number science develops in a totally natural way. This is what seems to have happened in most cases of calculating prodigies. From a basic understanding the young calculator realises that the power of their mind to calculate seems to be almost unlimited. Once they understand a problem they can solve it. Ampere was an amazing mental calculator at the age of three and Gauss at the same age corrected his father's mistake in a payroll reckoning. These people are self-taught, they construct their own methods of calculation.



In some cases however the methods they devise are extraordinarily complicated, especially in view of the ultra-efficient methods of Vedic Mathematics. Jedediah Buxton, for example, could multiply huge numbers together in his head but seems to use the most awkward methods, multiplying parts of the number and adding them. This may not have been difficult for him as he had an extraordinary memory. He could remember many long numbers and recite them from the left, from the right or from any other point. He would also remember all the steps in a calculation for a long time afterwards.



All mental calculators have a good memory and they make use of previous results they have found out. Some also work two or more figures at a time (a feature of the Vedic system, as is calculating from right to left or left to right). Calculating prodigies do not seem to necessarily always seek the most efficient method - only one that works and that they are happy with. But calculations can often become unconscious and the calculator cannot then describe their method. And furthermore what may have been an effective method can get altered and simplified with practice so that many calculating prodigies may be using Vedic methods without knowing it.



When Bharati Krsna Tirthaji gave talks in India after discovering the Vedic system some people took advantage by learning the Vedic methods and giving demonstrations, sometimes pretending to be divinely inspired or to have the help of some spirit. This demonstrates the effectiveness of Vedic Mathematics as an efficient mental system. The Introduction to the book "The Natural Calculator" describes the many advantages of mental mathematics and the Vedic system and supports the view that everyone is potentially a lightning calculator.



Vedic Maths Book for School








The Vedic Mathematics Sutras.



This list of sutras is taken from the book Vedic Mathematics, which includes a full list of the sixteen Sutras in Sanskrit, but in some cases a translation of the Sanskrit is not given in the text and comes from elsewhere.



Sixteen Sutras of Vedic Math





Sub Sutras of Vedic Math


















Multiplication of Any Two Numbers (Two Digits Numers) by Vedic Math Way:



Here two numbers (Two digits) are 45 and 78







1) Here two numbers (Two digits) are 45 and 78 .



2) 78  is written right under the number 45 for multiplication.


Steps 3 and 4







3) From Left : 4 from the number 45 and 7 from the number 78 are multiply which is (4 * 7 = 28) .



From right : Number 5 From The number 45 and 8 from number 78 are multiply which is (5 * 8 = 40).

Multiply the number in cross multiply way



Multiply the number in cross multiply way






4) Multiply the number in cross multiply way:



7 from 78 multiply with 5 from 45 which results (7 * 5 = 35) 35.



Then 4 from 45 multiply with 8 from 78 which results (4 * 8 = 32) 32.



By adding 35 and 32 results 67.


Step 5







5) Write down the Three results 2867 and 40 from left to right in order like 28 \ 67 \ 40.


4 from 40 add with next number 67 results 71. 0 remain






6) 4 from 40 add with next number 67 results 71. 0 remain.


Then 7 from 71 add with next number 28 results 35. 1 remain.






7) Then 7 from 71 add with next number 28 results 35. 1 remain.



Then 35 and two remain numbers like 1 and 0 write in order like 3510.







8) Then 35 and two remain numbers like 1 and 0 write in order like 3510.



9) The 3510 is the answer.



Try 37 *48 and 89 * 52 in this way.


Animated Steps







Calculate The Square of Two Digit Numbers Ending with 5 in Vedic Math Way:



Lets find the Square of 75 ( 75 * 75)







1) Lets find the Square of 75 ( 75 * 75).


First find the square of 5 which is the end number of 75 . So  5 * 5 = 25 .





2) First find the square of 5 which is the end number of 75 . So  5 * 5 = 25 .


Then Multiply 7 with 8 results 56






3) Then add one with the 7 to find the right next of 7 and which is 8.



4) Then Multiply 7 with 8 results 56.



Then write 56 and 25 side by side, which is 5625




5) Then write 56 and 25 side by side, which is 5625 .


6) So 5625 is the square value of 75.


Steps in Animated Ways



Try the square of 95 , 65 , 85 in this way.        



Vedic Maths Post